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1. What is Myopia?

Myopia is often referred to as “short-sightedness” or “near-sighted”. An eye is myopic when the “far point”; a point at which light from an object is focussed on the retina, is located at a finite distance in front of the eye. Myopia can be due to either an eye which is too long relative to the optical power of the eye (axial myopia), or because the optical power of the eye is too high relative to the length of the standard eye (refractive myopia). The focus is correctly adjusted with a “minus” power lens, or concave lens..

2. What is Hyperopia?

Hyperopia is often referred to as “long-sightedness” or “far-sighted”. An eye is hyperopic when the far point is at a virtual point behind the eye. Generally the hyperopic eye is too short with respect to the refractive state of the standard eye (ie an emmetropic eye or eye requiring no optical correction) or because the optical power of the eye is too low relative to the length of the standard eye. The focus is correctly adjusted using a “plus” lens power or convex lens.

3. Spectacle materials

Spectacle lenses are made of two main types of materials – plastic or glass. Plastic lenses are often CR39 or polycarbonate. Glass lenses come in a variety of refractive indexes, designed to minimise the thickness.HiIndex lens materials are commonly 1.56, 1.60 and 1.67..

Ultimately, the lens choice is very much a user application. Hi Index will provide a thinner edge and better cosmetic appearance but still are heavy. Comparatively, plastic lenses are lighter but in high minus prescriptions will have a significantly thicker lens edge.Furthermore the size of the frame will influence the overall edge thickness since a larger eye size means a larger lens.

4. Types of Spectacle Lenses

  • Single Vision lenses
  • Bifocal Lenses

  • Made of a main lens and an additional segment for near vision, Variety of shapes of near addition

  • Trifocal Lenses
  • Composed of main lens and two reading segments; one for near and one for intermediate distances (about arm lengths)

5. Difference between soft and hard contact lenses

Soft lenses are manufactured from a plastic hydrogel polymer, Hydroxy Ethyl Meth acrylate (HEMA) which has a varying water content (38% – ~70%). Lens size is between 13.00 and 14.50mm. Centre thickness from ~30um.

Hard contact lenses are manufactured from a rigid material, Poly Methyl Meth acrylate (PMMA). This material can be combined with other plastics to increase the oxygen permeability. Lens size is between 8.0mm and 10.00mm. Centre thickness from ~100um.

6. Types of Soft Contact Lenses

Soft contact lenses vary depending on either the refractive correction that they are prescribed for or the design and type of material.

Major types include:
  • Spherical – Single prescription power 360 degrees around the lens.
  • Toric – Contains both a spherical and cylinder component to correct prescriptions which have astigmatism. Lenses may     be thicker in one meridian or have modified thickness profiles to enable the lens to maintain correct orientation on the     eye.
  • Disposable – Spherical or toric contact lenses which are designed to be worn for a certain time period, eg, weekly, two-     weekly, monthly. Lenses are generally sold in a “blister” combination pack, eg 3 months supply with intention that lenses     are “disposed” of at the end of the time period.

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Project Drishti is a programme undertaken by J.G.Solanki Charitable Trust under the dynamic leadership of

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